1. 题干：When discussing the theory developed by Louis Dollo, the writer says that it was modified by biologists in the early twentieth century.（C10-T4-R3 T27）
原文：Early 20th-century biologists came to a similar conclusion, though they qualified it in terms of probability, and so the idea of irreversibility in evolution stuck and came to be known as ‘Dollo’s law’.
同义替换：Modified --- qualified it in terms of probability
2. 题干：The humpback whale caught off Vancouver Island is mentioned because of the
reason given for its unusual feature.（C10-T4-R3 T28）
原文：In 1919, for example, a humpback whale with a pair of leg-like appendages over a metre long, complete with a full set of limb bones, was caught off Vancouver Island in Canada.
Unusual feature --- a pair of leg-like appendages
3. 题干：What is said about ‘silent genes’?They could lead to the re-emergence of
certain characteristics.（C10-T4-R3 T29）
原文：They reasoned that while some evolutionary changes involve the loss of genes and are therefore irreversible, others may be the result of genes being switched off. If these silent genes are somehow switched back on, they argued, long-lost traits could reappear.
Re-emergence --- reappear
Characteristics --- traits
4. 题干：The writer mentions the mole salamander becauseit suggests that Raff’s theory is correct.（C10-T4-R3 T30）
原文：In other words, metamorphosis in mole salamanders is an atavism. The salamander example fits with Raff’s 10-million-year time frame.
Correct --- fit with
5. 题干：Which of the following does Wagner claim? Members of the Bachia lizard family have lost and regained certain features several times.（C10-T4-R3 T31）
原文：According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors and, what is more, digit loss and gain has occurred on more than one occasion over tens of millions of years.
Lost and regained --- loss and gain
Several times --- more than one occasion
6. 题干：For a long time biologists rejected the possibility of evolution being reversible.（C10-T4-R3 T32）
原文：For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant to use those words, mindful of a principle of evolution that say ‘evolution cannot run backwards’.
Rejected --- reluctant to use; mindful of
7. 题干：Opposing views on evolutionary throwbacks are represented byDollo’s findings and the convictions held by Lombroso.（C10-T4-R3 T33）
原文：While Lombroso was measuring criminals, a Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studing fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion.
Opposing views --- opposite conclusion
8. 题干：Examples of evolutionary throwbacks have led to exemplify the questions of how
certain long-lost traits could reappear.（C10-T4-R3 T34）
原文：Since then, so many other examples have been discovered that it no longer makes sense to say that evolution is as good as irreversible. And this poses a puzzle: how can characteristics that disappeared millions of years ago suddenly reappear?
Led to --- poses
Questions --- puzzle
Long-lost traits --- characteristics that disappeared millions of years ago
9. 题干：The shark and killer whale are mentioned to exemplify the occurrence of a
particular feature in different species.（C10-T4-R3 T35）
原文：One possibility is that these traits are lost and then simply reappear, in much the same way that similar structures can independently arise in unrelated species, such as the dorsal fins of sharks and killer whales.
A particular feature --- traits
Occurrence --- arise
In different species --- in unrelated species
10. 题干：One explanation for the findings of Wagner’s research is the continued
existence of certain genetic information.（C10-T4-R3 T36）
原文：Another more intriguing possibility is that the genetic information needed to make toes somehow survived for tens or perhaps hundreds of millions of years in the lizards and was reactivated.
One explanation --- another more intriguing possibility
Existence --- survived
11. 题干：Wagner was the first person to do research on South American lizards.（C10-T4-R3 T37）
原文：In a paper published last year, biologist Gunter Wagner of Yale University reported some work on the evolutionary history of a group of South American lizards called Bachia.
Do research on --- some work on
12. 题干：Wagner believes that Bachia lizards with toes had toeless ancestors.（C10-T4-R3 T38）
原文：According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors.
Lizards with toes --- the toed species
13. 题干：The temporary occurrence of long-lost traits in embryos is rare.
原文：Early embryos of many species develop ancestral features.
Rare --- many species
题干：Evolutionary throwbacks might be caused by developmental problems in the womb.（C10-T4-R3 T40）
原文： how can long-lost traits be reactivated over longer timescales? The answer may lie in the womb.
同义替换：Might be caused by---answer may lie in